Updated: 2 days ago
May is #AAPIHeritageMonth
May is Asian-American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, a celebration of Asiana and Pacific Islanders in the United States. A rather broad term, Asian/Pacific Islanders includes the Asian continent and the Pacific islands of Melanesia (New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji and the Solomon Islands), Micronesia (Marianas, Guam, Wake Island, Palau, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru and the Federated States of Micronesia) and Polynesia (New Zealand, Hawaiian Islands, Rotuma, Midway Islands, Samoa, American Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Cook Islands, French Polynesia and Easter Island).
In 1977, Rep. Frank Horton of New York and Senator Daniel Inouye each introduced a similar a resolution to found Asian and Pacific American Heritage week. Neither of these resolutions passed, but in June 1978, Rep. Horton introduced a resolution that President Jimmy Carter should “proclaim a week, which is to include the seventh and tenth of the month, during the first ten days in May of 1979 as ‘Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week.’” This joint resolution was passed by both the House and the Senate and was signed by the President on Oct. 5, 1978. In 1990, Congress passed a public law which expanded the observance from a week to a month.
In 1992, Congress passed a public law that declared that May as Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month. May was selected to honor the contributions of Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders to mark both the first Japanese immigrants to the United States on May 7, 1843 and the completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869. Chinese immigrant laid most of transcontinental railroad.
In this post, we will be introduced to three artists of Asian-American and Pacific Islander descent from a variety of backgrounds and who work in a range of art forms. We will learn about three musicians—two from the past and one living and working today. We begin our post by meeting the Hawaiian queen, author, and composer, Lili'uokalani. Then we are introduced to jazz baritone saxophonist, composer, bandleader, playwright, writer, and social activist, Fred Ho. And thirdly, we learn about the life and work of cello virtuoso, music educator, and humanitarian activist, Yo-Yo Ma.
Before we get into the main content of this post, a brief note:
As this blog has grown, I've added more resources that I offer to the public free of charge, including well-researched educational blog material, lesson suggestions for teachers, and enrichment for artists of all skill levels and experience. If you are a regular visitor and you have the means to do so, please consider buying me a coffee on Kofi or joining me on Patreon.
I look forward to continuing to share content of the highest caliber with you as well as my passion for all things creative! You have my sincere gratitude from the bottom of my heart for your continued support. ❤
Lili'uokalani – Queen and Composer
Our first artist of AAPI heritage is Queen Lili'uokalani. She composed hundred of songs or chants called mele with about 150 of them being published. Her most famous song is Aloha Oe. She also composed He Mele Lahui Hawaii, the Hawaiian national anthem. Her story illustrates how imperialism and colonialism have affected AAPI people and culture.
Lili'uokalani, also known as Lydia Liliuokalani Paki or Liliu Kamakaeha (Sept. 2, 1838 – Nov. 11, 1917), was the first and only Hawaiian queen regent and the last Hawaiian sovereign to govern the islands before they were annexed by the United States in 1898. She was born into a Hawaiian clan with high-status and was educated at a missionary school. Her mother was an advisor to Kamehameha III, who ruled from 1825 to 1862. Before Kamehameha's death, he adopted his nephew, who ruled over Hawaii as Kamehameha V until 1874 when he died without a successor. According to the Hawaiian constitution, the legislature could elect a new king and establish a new line of succession. So, Lydia’s brother David Kalākaua was chosen and ruled until 1891.
Lili'uokalani married John Owen Dominis in September 1862. Dominis was the son of a sea captain from Boston who was an official in the Hawaiian government. In 1877, after the death of a second brother, W.P. Leleiohoku, she was named heir presumptive. After this, she was known from that time by her royal name, Liliuokalani. After the death of Kalākaua in 1891, Liliʻuokalani was proclaimed queen. However, her reign was did not last long.
In January 1893, a coup led by lawyer and son of Christian missionaries from Maine, Sanford Dole. Interestingly, the U.S. president at the time, Grover Cleaveland, was anti-imperialist and opposed the coup. However, with a change of presidential administrations from Cleveland to William McKinley, Hawai'i was officially annexed into the U.S. Two years later, Liliuokalani and her supporters formed the Oni pa'a (Stand Firm) movement and attempted to re-take the islands and return power to Hawaiian royal rule, she was charged with treason and put under house arrest. In exchange for a pardon for her and her supporters, she yielded power. She stated:
"Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said forces, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representative and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands."
Lili'uokalani was granted a small pension by the provisional government, and on July 7, 1898, the Hawaiian Islands were officially annexed by the United States. She continued to advocate for a free Hawaiʻi until her death in 1917 at the age of 79.
Liliʻuokalani was not only a queen but a songwriter and author as well. She wrote in her book, Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen:
After leaving school, my musical education was continued from time to time as opportunity offered, but I scarcely remember the days when it would not have been possible for me to write either the words or the music for any occasion on which poetry or song was needed. To compose was as natural to me as to breathe ; and this gift of nature, never having been suffered to fall into disuse, remains a source of the greatest consolation to this day. I have never yet numbered my compositions, but am sure that they must run well up to the hundreds... Hours of which it is not yet in place to speak, which I might have found long and lonely, passed quickly and cheerfully by, occupied and soothed by the expression of my thoughts in music...
Her most famous song, Aloha ʻOe (Farewell to Thee) was composed before she became queen. She composed the song in its entirety in one afternoon in 1878. She said that she was struck by sudden inspiration while riding horseback through the mountains on her way to her home in Honolulu. According to researcher Leslie Ann Hayashi’s book Aloha Oe: The Song Heard Around the World, the song tells the story of James Aalapuna Harbottle Boyd, a military official from Honolulu who served the Kalakaua family. Liliuokalani had been touring the island of Oahu, one of her first official acts as the appointed heir-apparent and stopped to visit where the Boyds resided. As her riding party was leaving, she saw the colonel receive a lei and aloha, a goodbye, from a young Hawaiian girl. Some historians claim the girl was Lili'uokalani’s sister Princess Likelike, who had had a romantic entanglement with Boyd. It is said that Lili'uokalani did not write the song down until years later while she was under house arrest following her attempt to regain power. Because of this, many seen the song not as a tale of a lost romantic love but of a lament to a lost country.
The lyrics tell of someone saying goodbye to their love on a wind swept cliff. The last line of the chorus translated from Hawaiian into English says: Dearest one, yes, you are mine own/A loko e hana nei/From you, true love shall never depart, which could easily describe a human lover or a place that is dear to the singer's heart.
Many singers and musicians have recorded renditions of the song, many of them Hawaiian but some non-Hawaiian as well. Famous recordings include renditions by:
Nani Alapai (Dec. 1, 1874 – Oct. 1, 1928), a Hawaiian soprano singer of Native Hawaiian and Filipino descent who recorded the song along with singer Henry R. Clark for Columbia Records in 1911.
American singer, comedian and actor, Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – Oct.14, 1977) recorded a version on July 23, 1936 with Dick McIntyre and His Harmony Hawaiians.